The purpose of this section is not to detail numbers of islamic beliefs according to the ahlus sunnah, but to address a few issues of aqida that continue to keep the ahlus sunnah divided throughout the world.
No matter where you go in the world today, you will find muslims from the sub-continent there. And where there are asians, there are barelwi’s and deobandi’s or atleast one of the two (put together they may well be the largest group of sunni muslims outside the arab world). Where the two are found, their disputes quarrels and segregation is also found yet they both make a stance against anti-madhabists but on their own.
A few aqida issues that have kept them strongly divided are;
whether the prophet (saw) was made from noor (light) or from the same substance as any other human being.?
The hadith that provides evidence for this only exists in one book namely the musannaf of AbdurRazzaq, However the full musannaf has never been published and that which has clearly says at the end that it is not the complete musannaf, rather the full work was not published. Those that oppose this belief claim that such a hadith doesn’t exist and never appeared in the musannaf, but renowned scholars of ahlus sunnah have included the hadith in their works on hadith and referenced it to be from the musannaf of AbdurRazzaq. Others opposed to this belief claim that yes, they appear in certain books of past hadith masters but they have clearly stated that the hadith is either very weak or even fabricated. But that isn’t true at all, see what the scholars said here. Mashallah there are some deobandi scholars on that list. see the actual hadith taken from an original manuscript of the musannaf here. The light of the prophet (saw). However, it is agreed by all that he (s.a.w) was a human being and there is no doubt about that.
whether the prophet (s.a.w) is hazir & nazir or not..?
It is unanimously agreed (by sunni ulema throughout the world) upon that our beloved prophet (s.a.w) is alive in his rawdha mubarak in Al-Madina Munawwara.
However, within sunni scholarship there is dispute over whether the prophet (s.a.w) is hazir nazir or not? Those that deny this state that only allah is omni-present and if this attribute is applied to anyone else then it becomes tantamount to shirk (ascribing partners to allah).
However, the belief of hadhir nadhir is held on the account that it is through the will and power of allah that ht has been granted to the holy prophet (s.a.w) and it is not indepent. It is also worth noting that allah (s.w.t) is omni-present through his power and knowledge, any one who ascribes direction, shape or any sort of form to allah is actually the one who is guilty of this shirk.
Shaykh Gibril Haddad writes a detailed article here. Shaykh Faraz Rabbani states; We do not say that Allah is ‘everywhere,’ though He is ‘with us’ wherever we are. Note that Sunni scholars do not believe that Allah is physically ‘everywhere’, either. Rather, Allah exists beyond both time and space, for both are His creation and the Beginningless Creator is not conditioned by His creation.
how much knowledge of the unseen did the holy prophet (s.a.w) possess or how much was bestowed upon him..??
The most popular view on this belief will remain that of Imam Ahmad Ridha (RA). The prophet (s.a.w)’s knowledge of the unseen was so vast that only Allah had greater knowledge than him. It is also known that the holy prophet (s.a.w) was informed of all that was hidden except the five things which only Allah knew and did not reveal to any other. read here.
The sahaba (RA) reported that the prophet (saw) informed them of all the major events that will take place until the day of judgement, and all that had already happened in the past. An example of this can be viewed here.
The prophet (s.a.w) said; My Lord came to me in the best form (the narrator said, i think he said in my dream) and asked me about what the higher assembly ( al-mala’ al-a’la) vied, I said i did not know, so he put his hand between my shoulders, and i felt its coolness in my innermost, and knowledge of all things between the east and the west came to me. This was enough for Imam Ridha (RA) to conclude that the holy prophet (saw) could be called alimul ghayb with condition that one should remember that it was bestowed upon him by Allah and is in no way equal to Allahs knowledge. see also, shaykh abdullah ghumari’s explanation of “all but the five” here.
However, those opposed to this, claim that the prophet (saw) was granted a lot of knowledge more than any living being but the extent is unknown and that it is evident that the Shaytan and the Angel of death have more knowledge than our beloved prophet (saw).
Istighatha and whether one can call out Ya Rasoolallah..??
This topic can easily be understood by studying this, this, this & this. It will then be clear that the belief on this is the same on both sides and that, that which each side accuses of the other clearly does not exist. The friction over this is due to hearsay and mis-information.
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